Sunday, March 15, 2020
Stroke Warning Signs Seen Hours or Days Before Attack Warning signs of a stroke may appear as early as seven days before an attack and require urgent treatment to prevent serious damage to the brain, according to a study of stroke patients published in the March 8, 2005 issue of Neurology, the scientific journal of the American Academy of Neurology. A total of 80 percent of strokes are ischemic, caused by the narrowing of the large or small arteries of the brain, or by clots that block blood flow to the brain. They are often preceded by a transient ischemic attack (TIA), a Ã¢â¬Å"warning strokeÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"mini-strokeÃ¢â¬ that shows symptoms similar to a stroke, typically lasts less than five minutes and does not injure the brain. The study examined 2,416 people who had experienced an ischemic stroke. In 549 patients, TIAs were experienced prior to the ischemic stroke and in most cases occurred within the preceding seven days: 17 percent occurring on the day of the stroke, 9 percent on the previous day, and 43 percent at some point during the seven days prior to the stroke. Ã¢â¬Å"We have known for some time that TIAs are often a precursor to a major stroke,Ã¢â¬ said study author Peter M. Rothwell, MD, Ph.D., FRCP, of the Department of Clinical Neurology at Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford, England. Ã¢â¬Å"What we havenÃ¢â¬â¢t been able to determine is how urgently patients must be assessed following a TIA in order to receive the most effective preventive treatment. This study indicates that the timing of a TIA is critical, and the most effective treatments should be initiated within hours of a TIA in order to prevent a major attack.Ã¢â¬ The American Academy of Neurology, an association of more than 18,000 neurologists and neuroscience professionals, is dedicated to improving patient care through education and research. A neurologist is a doctor with specialized training in diagnosing, treating and managing disorders of the brain and nervous systems such as stroke, Alzheimers disease, epilepsy, Parkinsons disease, autism, and multiple sclerosis. Common Symptoms of a TIA While similar to those of a stroke, the symptoms of a TIA are temporary, and include: Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body.Sudden confusion or problems understanding.Sudden difficulty speaking.Sudden vision difficulty in one or both eyes.Sudden dizziness, loss of balance or coordination, or difficulty walking.Sudden, severe headache with no apparent cause.
Friday, February 28, 2020
The Recent Turn to Intersectionality In Feminist Theory - Essay Example Her academic work is undoubtedly the most prominent and well-known on the topic of intersectionality that at present received the substantial number of both critiques and appreciations primarily from the academe. Hence, the scholarly work of Kimberle Crenshaw will take a crucial part of this essay as shown in my argument. In this paper, I will take the standpoint of Crenshaw and argue that gender and race are overlapping characteristics of humans, whereby one cannot be separated from the other. Gender and race are the significant components of the multi-layered facets of life. Therefore, I will argue that women of colour are marginalised within both feminist theory and anti-racist policies, as both groups have their own strict set of ideas, from which black women are often left out, hence their experiences, are overthrown. I will start the essay with a critique of second-wave feminism, with relation to black women, who were throughout left out of its agenda. Afterwards, I will move o n to talk about how racism is a gendered process, hence women who are black or blacks who are women should not be excluded from these groups. Throughout the essay, I will include recent examples of the treatment of intersectionality in mainstream media to support my argument that while feminist academia has recently turned to intersectionality, there has still not been an understanding on what intersectionality actually is. Therefore, this remarkably must be the ultimate source of confusion regarding the existence of intersectionality as a concept, allowing women of colour in the societies today to be still highly disregarded at some point. First of all, I believe, a critical examination of the second wave feminism is necessary in order to establish the circumstances and treatment of black women from around the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s up until the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s, which consequently led to and had a great influence in creating feminist multiculturalism and later intersectionality per se.
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
Cause and Effect of Race on My Life - Essay Example It is not essential that everybody has to face certain problems in association with these characteristics but for me, the situation was on the negative side. I belong to the Middle East and I chose to pursue my studies in the United States with the prospect of achieving a better future. Though it is believed by many that racism is not a major factor which affects the living of a person in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world but in my case, my life was very much affected by my race. I was one of the very few people in my college in the United States who came from the Middle East. My race was one of the major reasons why not many people in my class wanted to befriend me. I was new in the country and an international student and it was a period when I actually needed help and support. It was very difficult on my part to communicate with people because I perceived that most of them did not want to engage in conversations with or assist me in getting used to the place. I still remember the time when I a sked a college mate to give me his notes to which he flatly refused and did not even speak any further. The concept that I actually realized was that the whites preferred sticking to their own groups. This was the beginning but with time things did change and we got on better terms after a few months. The level of trust was not very high but I actually communicate with them. We were colleagues but not friends who would actually go out or attend parties together. It cannot be denied that my race did assist me in many matters. I formed a very strong bond and actually made really good friends with people who belonged to different races and were international students like me.
Friday, January 31, 2020
The major problem in inventory system Essay One issue is infrequent large orders vs. frequent small orders. Large orders will increase the amount of inventory on hand, which is costly, but may benefit from volume discounts. Frequent orders are costly to process, and the resulting small inventory levels may increase the probability of stock-outs, leading to loss of customers. In principle all these factors can be calculated mathematically and the optimum found. A second issue is related to changes in demand (predictable or random) for the product. For example having the needed merchandise on hand in order to make sales during the appropriate buying season(s). A classic example is a toy store pre-Christmas. If one does not have the items on the shelves, one will not make the sales. And the wholesale market is not perfect. There can be considerable delays, particularly with the most popular toys. So, the entrepreneur or business manager will buy on spec. Another example is a furniture store. If there is a six week, or more, delay for customers to get merchandise, some sales will be lost. And yet another example is a restaurant, where a considerable percentage of the sales are the value-added aspects of food preparation and presentation, and so it is rational to buy and store somewhat more to reduce the chances of running out of key ingredients. With all these examples, the situation often comes down to these two key questions: How confident are you that the merchandise will sell, and how much upside is there if it does? And a third issue comes from the view that inventory also serves the function of decoupling two separate operations. For example work in process inventory often accumulates between two departments because the consuming and the producing department do not coordinate their work. With improved coordination this buffer inventory could be eliminated. This leads to the whole philosophy of Just In Time, which argues that the costs of carrying inventory have typically been underestimated, both the direct, obvious costs of storage space and insurance, but also the harder-to-measure costs of increased variables and complexity, and thus decreased flexibility, for the business enterprise.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Corporate Training Today, managers need well-trained employees and are finding they do not exist. Corporations are providing additional training for their employees. One such training program that is being added to corporate learning environments is an awareness of emotional intelligence. Business managers are learning that successful managers need high Emotional Quotient (EQ) or Emotional Intelligence (EI) to work effectively. Emotional intelligence is the ability to accurately perceive emotions in self and others, to identify different emotional responses, and to use emotional information to make intelligent decisions (Goleman, 2000). A leading expert on EQ finds, Ã¢â¬Å"people good at managing relationships tend also to be self-aware, self-regulating, and empatheticÃ¢â¬ (Goleman, 2000, p. 33). Emotional intelligence is especially important Ã¢â¬Å"at the highest levels of the company, where differences in technical skills are of little importance. In other words, the higher the rank of the person, the more emotional intelligence capabilities are needed for decision making effectivenessÃ¢â¬ (Goleman, 1986, p. 94). Emotional intelligence is crucial to a successful business career and for effective group performance (Goleman, 1986). The core competencies required for emotional intelligence are Ã¢â¬Å"the perception of emotions in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self and others, the understanding of these emotions, and the management of emotionsÃ¢â¬ (Feldman, 2001, p. 4). Success in the modern workplace requires teamwork and collaboration. Emotional Intelligence training is essential because most modern companies rely on teams of employees working together, rather than on the action of individual managers working in isolation (Ganzel, 2001). b Several accredited universities are delivering EQ training in hopes of preparing their students for the workplace. Grossman (2000) states: A current trend in education is to teach students about how their emotional intelligence can have a positive or negative effect on their career. Many universities are now offering courses in interpersonal relationships and emotional intelligence in an attempt to prepare students to be leaders. Leaders cannot lead in isolation, and an educational delivery system that features team building and collaboration is growing by the numbers. (p. 48) Emotional intelligence skills are a crucial component for a successful career in business.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
In the first place, there were many well renowned scholars who contributed immensely towards the development of communication processes, society and their communication relationships, which are still relevant and heart touching. Thus, David K. Berlo developed the source-message-channel receiver (SMCR) theory in the 1960s. His theories emphasized the many factors that could affect how senders and receivers created, interpreted and reacted to a message. While Max Weber Explore his contribution to our understanding of social stratification, classes and status groups from category Sociology in relation to communication. According to him, Ã¢â¬Å"We cannot deny the existence of social structures or system by which people are categorized or ranked in a hierarchy. This people categorization is otherwise known as social stratification. It is a universal characteristic of society that persists over generations. It is a social structure by which social issues and organizational problems arise. In a society, groups of people share a similar social status, and this is known as social classÃ¢â¬ . ABSTRACT In this work (assignment), I bother most on the contributions, the basic ideas and established notions propounded by both theorists_ D K Berlo and that of Max Weber. And their biography. Q. 1 (a) THE CONTRIBUTION OF DAVID K. BERLO AND HIS BASIC IDEAS ESTABLISHED IN THE THEORIES OF MASS COMMUNICATION Foremost, for a proper focus on communications theory, the Oxford English Dictionary defines communication as Ã¢â¬Å"the imparting, conveying, or exchange of ideas, knowledge, information, etc. We can look up the origin of the word. Communication comes from the Latin communis, Ã¢â¬Å"common.Ã¢â¬ When we communicate, we are trying to establish a Ã¢â¬Å"commonnessÃ¢â¬ with someone. That is, we are trying to share information, an idea or an attitude. Looking further, you can find this type of definition: Ã¢â¬Å"Communications is the mechanism through which human relations exist and develop.Ã¢â¬ This broad definition, found in a book written by a sociologist, takes in about everything Ã¢â¬Å"Communications theory then becomes the study and statement of the principles and methods by which information is conveyed. Among key communications theorists were Wilbur Schramm, David Berlo, and Marshall McLuhan. Basically, for a close examination, the major contribution in communication model that I will consider is the SMCR model, developed by David K. Berlo, a communications theorist and consultant. In his book The Process of Communication,6 Berlo points out the importance of the psychological view in his communications model. The four parts of BerloÃ¢â¬â¢s SMCR model are Ã¢â¬â no surprises here Ã¢â¬â source, message, channel, receiver. The first part of this communication model is the source. All communication must come from some source. The source might be one person, a group of people, or a company, organization, or institution such as MU. Several things determine how a source will operate in the communication process. They include the sourceÃ¢â¬â¢s communication skills Ã¢â¬â abilities to think, write, draw, speak. They also include attitudes toward audience, the subject matter, yourself, or toward any other factor pertinent to the situation. Knowledge of the subject, the audience, the situation and other background also influences the way the source operates. So will social background, education, friends, salary, culture Ã¢â¬â all sometimes called the sociocultural context in which the source lives. Message has to do with the package to be sent by the source. The code or language must be chosen. In general, we think of code in terms of the natural languages Ã¢â¬â English, Spanish, German, Chinese and others. Sometimes we use other languages Ã¢â¬â music, art, gestures. In all cases, look at the code in terms of ease or difficulty for audience understanding. Within the message, select content and organize it to meet acceptable treatment for the given audience or specific channel. If the source makes a poor choice, the message will likely fail. Channel can be thought of as a sense Ã¢â¬â smelling, tasting, feeling, hearing, seeing. Sometimes it is preferable to think of the channel as the method over which the message will be transmitted: telegraph, newspaper, radio, letter, poster or other media. Kind and number of channels to use may depend largely on purpose. In general, the more you can use and the more you tailor your message to the people Ã¢â¬Å"receivingÃ¢â¬ each channel, the more effective your message. Receiver becomes the final link in the communication process. The receiver is the person or persons who make up the audience of your message. All of the factors that determine how a source will operate apply to the receiver. Think of communication skills in terms of how well a receiver can hear, read, or use his or her other senses. Attitudes relate to how a receiver thinks of the source, of himself or herself, of the message, and so on. The receiver may have more or less knowledge than the source. Sociocultural context could be different in many ways from that of the source, but social background, education, friends, salary, culture would still be involved. Each will affect the receiverÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of the message. Messages sometimes fail to accomplish their purpose for many reasons. Frequently the source is unaware of receivers and how they view things. Certain channels may not be as effective under certain circumstances. Treatment of a message may not fit a certain channel. Or some receivers simply may not be aware of, interested in, or capable of using certain available messages. In short, Berlo: Several important ideas, notions and factors established must be considered relating to source, message, channel, and receiver. Q. 1. (b) TRACE THE BIOGRAPHY OF DAVID K. BERLO D. K. Berlo in history. This caption attempts to give an insight in to the biography of the eminent scholar whose communication ideologies, philosophy and notions cannot be overlooked in the field of mass communication_ journalism. Biographical information: In 1955, David K. Berlo, at the age of 29, received his doctorate degree in the study of communication from the University of Illinois. Berlo was a student of Wilbur Schramm, who sat on the doctoral committee. Schramm, whose theories of communication are well known, was responsible for the creation of the first communication program at the graduate level which was an entity separate from speech and mass communications. Dean Gordon Sabine, also sat on the committee, and the following day offered Berlo an assistant professorship position and the chair of the newly created Department of General Communication Arts, at his Michigan State University (MSU) (Rogers, 2001). In our trivial pursuit, it was discovered that, Berlo, being many years younger than his colleagues and some of his students, perceived himself to be in need of communicating an air of permanence and maturity, so that his position, and that of the newly formed department, would be taken seriously. To this end, he deliberately gained weightÃ¢â¬ ¦up to 270 pounds of body mass, dressed in dark, fancy suits, and began to act the part of the chairperson of a more well-established department (Rogers, 2001). It must have worked, because he was able to successfully establish, at Michigan State, one of our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s first undergraduate majors in communication. He functioned in the role of educator, author, and communication department chair at MSU for 14 years, from the departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s inception in 1957 through 1971. In 1960 he wrote the textbook which was implemented in his undergraduate classes, The Process of Communication. He taught an excellent doctoral level core course in research methods and statistics. He was a strong leader, excellent educator, and advocate for the field of communication study. He continued to research and develops his SMCR theory of communication and information. In it he stressed the importance of the perception of the source in the Ã¢â¬Å"eyeÃ¢â¬ of the receiver and also the channel(s) by which the message is delivered. During his final 3 years at Michigan State, it is said, that he seemed to lose interest in his job. He became county chairperson of the Republican Party and was passed over for the position of Dean of the College of Communication Arts (Rogers, 2001). In 1971 he became President of Illinois State University, but resigned in 1973 when an investigation took place to uncover whether or not he had spent unauthorized funds for the completion of the presidential house (Plummer, 2005). He completed his career working as a corporate consultant in St. Petersburg, Florida. Q. 2. (a) GIVE SOME ESTABLISHED NOTIONS OF MAN AND SOCIETY PROPOUNDED BY MAX WEBER. Max Weber was one of the founding figures of sociology. His work is important to students of communication for several reasons, including his methodological and theoretical innovations as well as a diversity of useful concepts and examples for the analysis of social behaviour, economic organization and administration, authority, leadership, culture, society, and politics. Some of his greatest achievements, notions, ideologies, philosophy, and the experiences that guided his convictions he established, which also characterized his stand and position; thus, can be seen as highlighted in the following contributions outlined: * Max WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s work provides an example of historical and comparative social science that successfully negotiated between attention to theoretical concepts and empirical details. Rather than concluding an investigation with a generalization or theoretical claimÃ¢â¬âthat all economic behaviour is rational, for exampleÃ¢â¬âWeber would use the concept of ra tional behaviour as a comparison point in conducting his research. * WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s work provides the origin of action theory as such. Weber defines action as meaningfully oriented behaviour, and takes it to be the fundamental unit of sociological investigation. This is crucially important for communication studies, for it defines a model of social science distinct from behaviourism. * How could Weber claim a scientific approach to motives and meanings, which cannot be directly observed? His resolution of this problem has been widely admired and imitated. On the one hand, he combined logic, empathy, and interpretation to construct ideal types for the analysis of historical cases. He constructed, for example, idealtype models of how the perfectly rational or perfectly traditional actor would make choices in ideal circumstances. These expectations would then be compared with what real people did in actual circumstances. When historical actors deviated from the ideal types, Weber did not take that as evidence of their cognitive shortcomings (their irra tionality, for example) but as clues to additional concepts he needed to develop for further analysis. * Working from the other direction, he interpreted historical records empathetically, striving to identify how the actors in a particular situation could have seen their action as a rational response to their circumstances. In this way, he was able to construct models of a range of types of rational action, opening up his theory to a greater range of human situations than either the behaviorists or the economists. Prayer, for example, as Weber pointed out, is rational behavior from the point of view of the faithful. * WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s work also provides many useful concepts and examples for communication studies, in addition to the wide-ranging importance of his action theory and his methodological innovations. * His analysis of economic organization and administration is the standard model of rational organization in the study of organizational communication. His studies of authority and leadership are important to students of mass communication, and of both organizational and political communication. * His studies in the sociology of religion explore the range of possibilities in the relation between ideas and social structures, a problem that continues to be at the heart of cultural studies. * His contrasts of rational and traditional and his analysis of modern bureaucracy are starting points for analysis of modern industrial-commercial culture and communication and the effect of the media on culture and politics. * Weber distinguished three ideal types of political leadership (alternatively referred to as three types of domination, legitimisation or authority): 1. Charismatic domination (familial and religious), 2. Traditional domination (patriarchs, patrimonialism, feudalism) and 3. Legal domination (modern law and state, bureaucracy). In his view, every historical relation between rulers and ruled contained such elements and they can be analysed on the basis of this tripartite distinction. He notes that the instability of charismatic authority forces it to Ã¢â¬Å"routiniseÃ¢â¬ into a more structured form of authority. In a pure type of traditional rule, sufficient resistance to a ruler can lead to a Ã¢â¬Å"traditional revolutionÃ¢â¬ . The move towards a rational-legal structure of authority, utilising a bureaucratic structure, is inevitable in the end. Thus this theory can be sometimes viewed as part of the social evolutionism theory. This ties to his broader concept of rationalisation by suggesting the inevitability of a move in this direction. * Bureaucratic administration means fundamentally domination through knowledge. * Weber described many ideal types of public administration and government in his masterpiece Economy and Society (1922). His critical study of the bureaucratisation of society became one of the most enduring parts of his work. It was Weber who began the studies of bureaucracy and whose works led to the popularisation of this term. Many aspects of modern public administration. Social stratification * Weber also formulated a three-component theory of stratification, with Social class, Social status and Political party as conceptually distinct elements. * Social class is based on economically determined relationship to the market (owner, renter, employee etc.). * Status class is based on non-economical qualities like honour, prestige and religion. * Party class refers to affiliations in the political domain. * All three dimensions have consequences for what Weber called Ã¢â¬Å"life chancesÃ¢â¬ (opportunities to improve oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life). This context consisted of the political problems engendered by the bourgeois status-group of the city, without which neither Judaism, nor Christianity, nor the developments of Hellenistic thinking are conceivable. According to Weber, * He argued that Judaism, early Christianity, theology, and later the political party and modern science, were only possible in the urban context that reached a full development the West alone. =>He also saw in the history of medieval European cities the rise of a unique form of Ã¢â¬Å"non-legitimate dominationÃ¢â¬ that successfully challenged the existing forms of legitimate domination (traditional, charismatic, and rational-legal) that had prevailed until then in the Medieval world. This new domination according to him, was based on the great economic and military power wielded by the organised community of city-dwellers (Ã¢â¬Å"citizensÃ¢â¬ ). WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas Ã¢â¬Å"form the heart of what is commonly known as structuralismÃ¢â¬ (Littlejohn). Weber defines organization as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"An Ã¢â¬ËorganizationÃ¢â¬â¢ is a system of continuous, purposive activity of a specified kind. A Ã¢â¬Ëcorporate organizationÃ¢â¬â¢ is an associative social relationship characterized by an administrative staff devoted to such continuous purposive activityÃ¢â¬ (Weber, Social and Economic Organizations, p. 151.). WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s notion of bureaucracy involves power, authority, and Legitimacy. Power Ã¢â¬Å"is the ability of a person in any social relation to Influence others and to overcome resistance. Power in this sense is fundamental to most social relationshipsÃ¢â¬ (Littlejohn). Q. 2. (b) GIVE THE BIOGRAPHY OF MAX WEBER MAX WEBERÃ¢â¬â¢S EARLY LIFE AND FAMILY BACKGROUND Weber was born in 1864, in Erfurt, Thuringia. He was the eldest of the seven children of Max Weber Sr., a wealthy and prominent civil servant and member of the National Liberal Party, and his wife he was buckinÃ¢â¬â¢ Helene (Fallenstein), who partly descended from French Huguenot immigrants and held strong moral absolutist ideas. Weber Sr.Ã¢â¬â¢s involvement in public life immersed his home in both politics and academia, as his salon welcomed many prominent scholars and public figures. The young Weber and his brother Alfred, who also became a sociologist and economist, thrived in this intellectual atmosphere. WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s 1876 Christmas presents to his parents, when he was thirteen years old, were two historical essays entitled Ã¢â¬Å"About the course of German history, with special reference to the positions of the Emperor and the Pope,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"About the Roman Imperial period from Constantine to the migration of nations.Ã¢â¬  In class, bored and unimpressed with the teachers Ã¢â¬â who in turn resented what they perceived as a disrespectful attitude Ã¢â¬â he secretly read all forty volumes of Goethe. Before entering the university, he would read many other classical works. Over time, Weber would also be significantly affected by the marital tension between his father, Ã¢â¬Å"a man who enjoyed earthly pleasures,Ã¢â¬ and his mother, a devout Calvinist Ã¢â¬Å"who sought to lead an ascetic life.Ã¢â¬ Max Weber and his brothers, Alfred and Karl, in 1879 MAX WEBERÃ¢â¬â¢S EDUCATION At this juncture, Weber was in 1882, enrolled in the University of Heidelberg as a law student. After a year of military service he transferred to University of Berlin. After his first few years as a student, during which he spent much time Ã¢â¬Å"drinking beer and fencing,Ã¢â¬ Weber would increasingly take his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s side in family arguments and grew estranged from his father. Simultaneously with his studies, he worked as a junior barrister. In 1886 Weber passed the examination for Referenda, comparable to the bar association examination in the British and American legal systems. Throughout the late 1880s, Weber continued his study of law and history. He earned his law doctorate in 1889 by writing a dissertation on legal history entitled Ã¢â¬ËDevelopment of the Principle of Joint Liability and the Separate Fund in the Public Trading Company out of Household and Trade Communities in Italian Cities.Ã¢â¬â¢ This work was used as part of a longer work Ã¢â¬ËOn the History of Trading Companies in the Middle Ages, based on South-European Sources,Ã¢â¬â¢ published in the same year. Two years later, Weber completed his Habilitationsschrift, Roman Agrarian History and its Significance for Public and Private Law, working with August Meitzen. Having thus become a Privatdozent, Weber joined the University of BerlinÃ¢â¬â¢s faculty, lecturing and consulting for the government. References Reinhard Bendix and Guenther Roth Scholarship and Partisanship: Essays on Max Weber, University of California Press, 1971, p. 244. Ã¢â¬Å"Max Weber.Ã¢â¬ EncyclopÃ ¦dia Britannica. 2009. EncyclopÃ ¦dia Britannica Online. 20 April 2009. Britannica.com Ã¢â¬Å"Max WeberÃ¢â¬ . Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 17 February 2010. Max Weber; Hans Heinrich Gerth; Bryan S. Turner (7 March 1991). From Max Weber: essays in sociology. Psychology Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-415-06056-1. Retrieved 22 March 2011. D K Berlo. The Process of Communication.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
For the past 20 years, there has a been an on going heated debate on whether experiments on animals for the benefit of medical and scientific research is ethical. Whether it is or isnt, most people believe that some form of cost-benefit test should be performed to determine if the action is right. The costs include: animal pain, distress and death where the benefits include the collection of new knowledge or the development of new medical therapies for humans. Looking into these different aspects of the experimentation, there is a large gap for argument between the different scientists views. In the next few paragraphs, both sides of the argument will be expressed by the supporters. A well known scientist named Neal D. BarnardÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The stress of handling, confinement and isolation alters the animals mental stability and introduces yet another experimental variable that makes any results from testing even less valuable to human helping. In many cases, drugs and other substances are given to the test animals but studies have shown considerable differences in the effects of these drugs on different species. David Salsburg of Pfizer Central Research has noted that of 19 chemicals known to cause cancer in humans when ingested, only seven caused cancer in mice and rats using the standards set by the National Cancer Institute. This justifies that many substances that appeared safe in animal studies and received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in humans later proved dangerous to people. The drug milrinone, which raises cardiac output, increased survival of rats with artificially induced heart failure; humans with severe chronic heart failure taking this drug had a 30 percent increase in fatalities. Also, the antiviral drug fialuridine seemed safe in animal trials yet caused liver failure in seven of 15 humans taking the drug (five of these patients died as a result of the medication, and the other two received liver transplants). Scientists and the populous that do not agree withShow MoreRelatedAnimal Rights And Human Rights923 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Animal Rights Ã¢â¬Å"Nearly as many, 68 percent, were concerned or very concerned about the well-being of animals used in Ã¢â¬ËsportsÃ¢â¬â¢ or contests as well as animals in laboratories (67 percent) (Kretzer, 1).Ã¢â¬ Many people question whether an animal is capable of thought and emotions. Others feel as though animals are the equivalent of humans and should be treated as such. Since the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s, animal rights has been a topic that has several different sides including two extremes. If animals can react to theirRead MoreThe Debate On Animal Rights910 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThere are two major schools of thought on animal protection. 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But I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know if any of that changed my views. I still think becoming a vegetarian is the way to go. Devon: You think? I still think that it is okay to eat meat. The animals just need to be raised in a humane manner. Sasha: EhÃ¢â¬ ¦I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know. Animals should just be left alone and be free to roam around in the wild. They should not be tortured like those animals that I saw while visiting that Ã¢â¬Å"kill floorÃ¢â¬ . Devon: